The growth medium plays a vital role when growing marijuana plants.
Soil is the underlying foundation for growing cannabis or any crop. Choosing the best soil is necessary to produce potent, terpene-rich, and high-yielding buds. So, right now, you will learn the types of soils and pick the best soil for your subsequent cannabis cultivation.
Cannabis connoisseurs state that growing weed in suitable soil makes a huge difference. However, you might get stuck picking suitable potting soil if you can’t differentiate between good and mediocre soil. Suffice to say, it’s a key element to consider before planting your favorite strain.
- What is good soil for growing cannabis?
- What are the features of high-quality soil?
- What should be the ideal cannabis soil pH value?
- What are the best soils to use for different types of strains?
Let’s dive deep into this article to unearth the answers to these critical questions.
While choosing suitable soil, it’s imperative to consider several factors: pH value, soil health, soil biology, exchange of soil gases, movement of water, tilth quality, and nutrient holding capacity.
If you plan to grow your stash of weeds, researching the perfect soil is worth it if you desire to get high-quality and healthy flowers.
Best Soils for Cannabis 2022 Round-Up
- 1 Best Soils for Cannabis 2022 Round-Up
- 2 Choosing The Best Soil for Cannabis: A Complete Guide for Indoor Weed Growers
- 3 Top 10 Best Soil for Cannabis Indoor Growth in 2022
- 3.1 #1 – FoxFarm FX14047 (2 Cubic Feet) – Editor’s Choice
- 3.2 #2 – FoxFarm Ocean2 FX14000 (3 Cubic Feet) – Best Potting Soil Bags
- 3.3 #3 – Mother Earth Coco Plus Perlite 50L (1.8 Cubic Feet) – Best Coco Pelite Blend
- 3.4 #4 – Roots Organics Formula 707 (1.5 Cubic Feet) – Best Organic Soil
- 3.5 #5 – FoxFarm FX14100 Coco Loco (2 Cubic Feet) – Best soil mix
- 3.6 #6 – Big Rootz All Purpose Potting Soil (1.5 Cubic Feet) – Best organic mix soil
- 3.7 #7 – Espoma Seed Starter Potting Mix 8qt – Best Soil for Seedlings
- 3.8 #8 – Nature’s Living Soil 25 Gallons (3.9 Cubic Feet) – Best organic super soil
- 3.9 #9 – Black Gold 1302040 All Organic 8-Quart (0.3 cubic feet) – Best Organic Potting Soil
- 3.10 #10 – Miracle-Gro 16-Quart (0.6 Cubic Feet) – Best for Growing Auto-flowering
- 4 Suggested Brands for Cannabis Soil
- 5 Best Marijuana Growing Soils in 2022
- 6 Ingredients of Good Soil for Cannabis
Choosing suitable soil is equally important as choosing high-quality cannabis seeds from reliable seed banks. There are so many exotic weed collections on the market to indulge you. Whether you go for feminized, autoflower, regular, or pure ruderalis strain, it will get you excellent quality and yield if you take care of growing mediums.
This review is going to be very helpful for indoor cultivators. Growing cannabis indoors is such a thing that it requires perfect knowledge about everything. If seed quality, soil quality, and growing environment are not ideal, you cannot receive high yields!
Weed growing starts by choosing suitable soil. If you grasp sufficient knowledge about soils, it’s not a difficult task! I know many newbies do not get guidance from experienced cannabis growers.
For those, here’s the ultimate guide to making your growing experience pleasurable.
I will be mentioning the best soils for cannabis. Besides, I will explain what you need to look for in soil before buying it for your indoor or outdoor gardens.
My expert team and I have experimented with and researched soil preferences to make the weed cultivation process easy for you.
So, let’s kick off!
Choosing The Best Soil for Cannabis: A Complete Guide for Indoor Weed Growers
There are usually three things to consider in soil for ensuring the perfect growth of your marijuana plants. These are:
- Water Retention
The porous space should be more in sand structure to retain more water. Poor drainage could destroy your plants. Along with that, the clay soil texture retains water properly and provides adequate oxygen. Therefore, your cannabis plants will never thrive well in soil with lots of clay.
However, you can mix half soil with half coco coir, which would be best. The logic behind it is that the coco coir helps retain the water and peat-based soil helps out drainage.
The perfect combo!
If the potting soil is a bit tight, the roots will not develop well. In addition, lack of drainage means a lack of oxygen, which will not make your plants thrive well. Furthermore, water retention prevents the roots from drying out. It has also been reported that dark coffee color soil is considered good quality cannabis soil to promote healthy growth.
It also depends upon whether you are growing autoflowering strains or not because autoflowers do not yield well in highly fertilized soil.
Top 10 Best Soil for Cannabis Indoor Growth in 2022
Here’s the ultimate list of the top 10 best soil for cannabis to grow your indoor plants. These soils will get you an excellent output of your stash of buds.
1. FoxFarm FX14047 – Editor’s choice
2. FoxFarm FX14000 – Best potting soil bags
3. Best coco pelite blend – Best coconut coir soil
4. Roots Organics Rod – Best organic soil
5. Fox Farm Coco Loco– Best soil mix
6. Big Rootz – Best organic mix soil
7. Espoma SS8 8-Quart – Best soil for seedlings
8. Nature’s Living Soil – Best organic super soil
9. Black Gold 1302040 8-Quart – Best organic potting soil
10. Miracle-Gro 16-Quart – Best for growing autoflowering strains
Each of these soils is perfect for a specific purpose. Read on to distinguish what each of them offers for your needs. So, let’s start reviewing these soils in detail to help you make an informed decision.
#1 – FoxFarm FX14047 (2 Cubic Feet) – Editor’s Choice
FoxFarm is one of the best brands for soil in which a whole lot of breeders put their trust. Soil from FoxFarm holds all the essential qualities that your weed plant needs.
While growing indoors, your plants will not touch the ground directly, so they will not be able to soak the nutrients essential for thriving. But, this potting soil from FoxFarm holds all such nutrients and minerals.
This soil is a blend of fungi and microbes to feed your cannabis plants. It holds the perfect pH level for your cannabis plants. Moreover, this soil also makes your plants absorb maximum nutrients.
Utilize this potting soil, and I am sure your cannabis plants will have more prominent and resinous buds. It is our editor’s choice as it produces the best results with the cannabis plants.
#2 – FoxFarm Ocean2 FX14000 (3 Cubic Feet) – Best Potting Soil Bags
If you are growing in small grow tents or grow rooms, FoxFarm FX14000 is a suitable choice. This soil is designed perfectly with great ingredients. Even if you go for containerized plantings, this soil will help your plants tremendously well.
You get abundant fertilizers in this soil, and the pH level is also great. To get the maximum benefits of fertilizer, the pH value in this soil is adjusted between 6.3 to 6.8. As a result, your plants will receive all the nutrients they need.
This soil mix pack contains sea-going fish, earthworm castings, forest humus, bat guano, crab meal, and many more essential elements. Furthermore, they are the best elements to encourage your cannabis plants. Essentially, it is an excellent soil for experienced cannabis growers. This soil pack got 4.8 stars out of 5 on Amazon from 4100+ customers!
#3 – Mother Earth Coco Plus Perlite 50L (1.8 Cubic Feet) – Best Coco Pelite Blend
MotherEarth Coco Plus Perlite Mix is one of the best cannabis soils. You don’t need to worry about over-watering your plants with this soil. Instead, it provides you with a couple of components, and their combination forms a great mixture.
The coconut coir in this soil pack helps the dirt to avoid compaction. And it is the most important quality of the best cannabis soil.
Many marijuana connoisseurs call this the best soil mix for weed plants. Moreover, it holds the proper texture drainage and retention capabilities. In addition, the soil can be used for indoor or outdoor container planting.
It incorporates 70% coconut coir and 30 % perlite for decent airflow and drainage. Interestingly, this soil pack got 4.7 stars from 3500 happy customers on Amazon.
#4 – Roots Organics Formula 707 (1.5 Cubic Feet) – Best Organic Soil
Aurora Innovations created this ready-to-use soil. It is potting soil from organic roots, and it is the environment-friendly soil to thrive your plants well. Undoubtedly, this organic soil is one of the best in the cannabis industry.
It can hold a more significant amount of water and fewer perlite, pumice, and nutrients. With this pack, you will get a good percentage of nutrients, so you can use it after your cannabis plants have passed the seedling stage.
This nutrient-rich organic soil includes top-quality organic matter, which gives the best backing to the weed plants. The components in this pack are as follows:
Bat Guano, Greensand, Coco Fiber, Volcanic Rock Dust, Feather Meal, Coarse Peat Moss, Non-GMO Soybean Meal, Pumice, Kelp Meal, Composted Virgin Forest Material, Fishbone Meal, Perlite, and Earthworm Castings.
Notable, isn’t it?
Nutrient uptake is an essential point to consider. And for that, this pack also contains FunneliformisMosseae, SeptoglomusDesertícola, and RhizophagusIntraradices. These are called mycorrhizal fungi that improve the utilization of root biomass.
This unique soil mix pack got 4.5 stars out of 5 on Amazon among 90 customers. You can bring this ready-to-use soil pack and directly fill it in your pots without mixing.
#5 – FoxFarm FX14100 Coco Loco (2 Cubic Feet) – Best soil mix
When I tested this soil mix pack in the lab, I got the best output by mixing this soil with Happy Frog potting soil. The best thing about this soil is that it doesn’t get too hot as other soils do. So, when you are planting from seeds, it is the right time to use this soil pack.
This soil provides the proper nutrition to the roots and a good amount of oxygen. The coir in this soil works very well as it forms a sponge-like structure to pass nutrients and water to weed plants.
The addition of a happy frog potting soil worked like magic and produced excellent yield! Furthermore, this soil pack got 4.7 stars out of 5 on Amazon among 1200+ shoppers. Interestingly, the packing of this soil bag illustrates fantastic graphics on it!
#6 – Big Rootz All Purpose Potting Soil (1.5 Cubic Feet) – Best organic mix soil
This soil is formed after extensive research by many cannabis enthusiasts. It is also a prevalent choice among beginners. Even if you are not experienced in applying dirt, it will not harm your cannabis plants the way other soils do.
The chances of messing up your plants with this soil pack are less as it is entirely organic. Therefore, your plants can maximize water intake as adjusting the pH level is very suitable.
The ingredients utilized in the production of Big Rootz soil work exceptionally well for your cannabis plants. This soil mix pack comprises coir, worm casting, and peat.
You can’t go wrong with this proprietary blend of potting soil. Your plants will thrive soundly as the soil makes an acceptable way for water and nutrients. Besides, this soil pack got 4.7 stars out of 5 among 122 happy customers.
#7 – Espoma Seed Starter Potting Mix 8qt – Best Soil for Seedlings
This soil pack is excellent for promoting the root growth of your marijuana plants. This soil holds a rich blend of ingredients to flourish your seedlings.
The soil ensures substantial root advancement with peat humus, Myco-tone, perlite, and Sphagnum peat moss. You’ll love its water and nutrient uptake capacity.
Furthermore, it has brilliant sustenance for initial root growth. You can rest assured that you will get abundant yield by using this progressively nutritious soil pack.
Espoma Potting Mix got 4.5 stars among 1800+ customers on Amazon. It provides excellent bang for your bucks. I recommend using this soil to grow larger plants with impressive yields.
#8 – Nature’s Living Soil 25 Gallons (3.9 Cubic Feet) – Best organic super soil
The super soil from Nature’s Living carries super-rich elements to make your plants grow quickly and efficiently. However, you can incorporate some soil media with this soil pack. Yet, you will get staggering output when planting photoperiod cannabis strains once you do that.
The critical thing to review with this super soil is that you won’t have to incorporate any additional manures once you’ve planted your seeds. Instead, it is fully stacked with microorganisms that will produce excellent buds. Having such beneficial microbes, you need to add sufficient water to your plants.
The Living Soil technology is used to create this soil. Thus, it will be helpful whether you grow weeds or any other vegetables. This soil pack got 4.6 stars among 700+ customers on Amazon.
#9 – Black Gold 1302040 All Organic 8-Quart (0.3 cubic feet) – Best Organic Potting Soil
Black Gold is an all-around organic potting soil for growing marijuana indoors. The ingredients in this soil are tested for quality and suitability. Moreover, this soil is well-known for quality bud production, making it a highly sought-after soil among weed connoisseurs.
This soil will make a fantastic base for your plants. Black Gold receives much appreciation for its rich and advanced soil mix. Further, it is better than an average soil for those who need to include supplementary nutrition.
Pumice and perlite are fundamental elements in this soil that ensure optimum airflow. This way, the dirt can hold more oxygen. Its loamy mixture is highly suitable for all sorts of gardening applications.
You can use this soil in herb gardens, hanging baskets, vegetable plantings, and patio containers for top-quality yield. This soil pack got an average rating of 4.6 stars out of 5 among 1200+ satisfied customers.
#10 – Miracle-Gro 16-Quart (0.6 Cubic Feet) – Best for Growing Auto-flowering
If you are a beginner at cultivating weed plants and need soil to strengthen your plants, Miracle Grow soil is an excellent choice. It is the best soil to use while growing cannabis in containers. Besides, Miracle-Gro is also the best super soil for growing autoflowering marijuana strains.
You will need to provide NPK fertilizers at different stages of the cannabis lifecycle. This fertilizer pack is included with this purchase.
You might come across shelter fungus gnats while growing your pot in containers. However, as this super soil contains no bark or compost, your buds will be less likely to get gnats.
It is essential to choose soil that lets water and air stream flawlessly. This soil carries coconut coir to allow water to flow adequately.
You can buy 1-bag or 2-bags soil pack while making your purchase. So, go for a more extensive package to enjoy discount benefits. For example, Miracle-Gro Potting Mix has a rating of 4.7 stars out of 5 from 24,000+ customers on Amazon.
Suggested Brands for Cannabis Soil
Now that you review the best cannabis soils with their qualities and value look at the best and most reliable soil producers.
- Black Gold
- Roots Organics
- Big Roots
- Mother Earth
- Dr. Earth
- Purple Cow Organics
- Nature’s Living
- Uncle Bud’s
- Hopwood Farms
- The Next Gardener
Best Marijuana Growing Soils in 2022
The best soil carries the perfect fusion of light texture, pH value, drainage, and color. Many of you desire to sow your favorite cannabis plant in your grow room. But when you do that, you need to play with dirt and fertilizer.
Meanwhile, young cannabis plants need perfect soil composition before moving to the flowering stage. Outdoor soil can naturally improve root development with organic nutrients and organic soils. But your indoor plants demand perfect soil mixes, nutrients, and good drainage, especially young seedlings.
The surface facilitates the general structure of the soil, so when it comes to planting your seeds in the ground, it’s essential to understand the following factors.
- Bigger granular size
- Lower pH level
Advantages: Prevents compaction, drainage, convenience to use, and higher oxygen levels.
Disadvantages: Dries out quickly, Nutrients get washed away, and poor water retention.
- Small granular size
- Higher pH
Advantages: Retains water, provides minerals and stabilizes plants.
Disadvantages: Heavy texture, Poor drainage, and hard to use.
- Medium granular size
Advantages: It is naturally fertile as it contains specific nutrients, stabilizes plants, and retains water.
Disadvantages: Drainage is not good and easily compacted.
- A mixture of silt, sand, and clay
- Near neutral pH
Advantages: Good drainage, naturally fertile, water retention, comfortable to work with, supports microorganisms, nutrient retention, and a high percentage of oxygen.
Disadvantages: It can be more costly than others.
Ingredients of Good Soil for Cannabis
You get great soil selections in the market, and many will recommend picking the loamy soil only. It’s because it holds the appropriate abilities to support the growth of marijuana plants.
Now, loamy soil is further categorized into so many variations. Hence, you might get tangled in choosing from it. So, it’s of paramount importance to ponder different nutrients and microorganisms and the soil.
Furthermore, you may find many active ingredients in the top-quality soil, such as forest humus, bat guano, compost, fish meal, peat moss, biochar, plant food, worm castings, and glacier rock dust.
You must embrace quality potting soil to serve your cannabis plants with requisite nutrients during different growth stages if you are a beginner. Many of the soils I mentioned in this review hold many of these ingredients. However, you might not need to use any liquid nutrients with such phenomenal soil!
That’s what I call value for money!
Making Loam Soil
Loam soil is a blend of the three soil types. However, if you try to combine sand with mud, you’ll have a rigid surface. Thus, producing topsoil is not recommended. Nevertheless, Loam soil is the best soil for cannabis.
Making topsoil needs many ingredients. In addition, the crumbling plant material produces waste forms for your weed plants.
The issue with ordinary dirt is that it gets drained rapidly, and you need to change it seasonally. So the proportion of work you ought to do depends upon the quality of your preferred soil. So, for example, if your soil has high proportions of mud or sand, you need to incorporate many elements to keep it healthy.
If you are not sure what to use, add one or two inches of the organic potting mix layer. Also, use a slither of soil to make it perfect.
Loam soil displays dark color and is quite soft, dry, and crumbly. You can feel that by holding it. Although this soil offers a tight grip on plant food and water, it drains thoroughly. As a result, the air can move freely between the soil particles down to the roots of the cannabis plants.
Selection of Perfect Soil for Your Cannabis Plants
When procuring soil for weed, acquire the basics of good cannabis soil. For example, suppose you expect your flowers to generate top-quality cannabinoids and trichomes. In that case, you must look for texture, soil biology, nutrition, pH level, tilth quality, water retention capacity, drainage, and airflow capacity.
You can visit your nearby local garden store to check the soil quality for yourself and make the perfect buying decision. But, on the other hand, it’s worth noting that buying it in large quantities could put you in pain if the soil doesn’t work well because many vendors don’t guarantee soil quality.
Many of those cannabis soil stores could provide you with low-grade soil that is destructive for your weed plants, so be aware and do some research before buying the perfect soil.
Drainage, Texture & Water Retention
Drainage, texture, and water retention capacity are prime factors in choosing suitable soil for cultivating marijuana plants. However, your weed plants cannot give a significant yield and quality buds if they don’t receive the right mix of water and oxygen in the roots consistently.
If there is insufficient water, the roots won’t get enough oxygen. On the other contrary, excessive water could also destroy the roots. That’s why perfectly balanced soil is necessary to make way for adequate water quantity. So, what should be the best quality of the soil? They include:
- Dark-colored soils (likely to have more nutrients)
- Excellent drainage
- The ability to hold water with control
- Improved soil fertility
Your cannabis soil must have ideal drainage, surface, and water holding traits. Fortunately, there are many ways by which you can improve the water retention capacity and overall quality of the soil. Here are four of the most used practices performed by marijuana breeders.
Using Coco Coir with Soil
Utilizing coconut husks with soil can upgrade the water retention capacity. It’s the basic cannabis soil recipe to make super soil. You can foster your cannabis plants in pure coco coir as well. When you use coco coir, over-watering will not cause problems, and your plant’s healthy growth becomes quicker. Nevertheless, a limit of 30% is suitable for a fruitful soil reformation.
Organic Earthworm Castings
Worm castings are the finest fertilizer for weed-growing soils. They improve water flow, drainage capacity, and surface. Moreover, the improved version of work castings comes with microorganisms that make your cannabis plants healthy.
Worms take organic material (or waste) and convert them into nutrients. Note that this element works well with soil if you keep it around 30%. Upon cannabis seedlings with worm castings, you will notice that your plants grow with a commendable performance.
It is the most crucial element in soil mixtures. You can use perlite in potting compost mixes to enhance insulation, airflow, and drainage. Further, it helps germinate seeds faster. Interestingly, it contains vaporous rocks known for their white tone.
It looks pretty like popcorn and uses soil waste to improve oxygen. You can use 10-20% of perlite with soil to improve water upkeep. However, you can use it in more concentration, but it will consume the supplements quickly. If you use Perlite and Vermiculite, do not exceed 50% concentration.
Vermiculite enhances nutrient and water retention capacity. It can also help improve the airflow in soil. Interestingly, vermiculite outperforms perlite in water retention ability! Consequently, you will get healthier and excellent quality buds quickly.
Your cannabis soil must have many valuable elements that support nutrition support. For example, many cannabis cultivators look for animal waste and decaying vegetables as fertilizers.
However, you should isolate the material first to provide the roots with good supplements.
First of all, water the soil adequately, set a temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit, and test the pH regularly. It is fundamental for indoor cultivators to utilize soil enhancements because container soils might not have the same benefits as natural outdoor soils.
You can use heat to purify the soil before making a performance-rich soil mix. It is effortless to make it yourself. It’s fun; try it. But, if you are a complete beginner and serious about growing quality weed, it’s recommended to get it from your nearby garden store.
Expert cannabis growers are undoubtedly familiar with the pH value of soil. If you haven’t heard about it, pH implies the value of the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. It is a measuring unit to estimate the soil’s alkalinity or acidity.
The pH scale has values from 0 to 14. The pH value of 7.0 is neutral. Values between 0 to 6.9 are acidic, while a scale of 7.1 to 14 is considered alkaline.
The cannabis plants prefer slightly acidic soil for roots. Most breeders believe that the ideal pH value of soil should be 6.0. Further, if your soil has a pH value between 5.5 and 6.5, it is perfect for cannabis. Even if the range varies slightly, you will get good yields.
Best Soils for Growing Cannabis Indoors: The Verdict
After reading this review of soil mixes, I am sure you get all the necessary know-how to bloom your indoor weed plants. Choosing the perfect soil might tangle you in confusion, but following this guide will clear any doubt you might have.
The above section states that Fox Farm, Black Gold, and Espoma are top-rated soil producers. You can rely upon the quality and usability of their soils without compromising your marijuana plant health. Their soil mix packs have earned excellent ratings and positive reviews from worldwide customers.
The above-mentioned best soils for cannabis will get you ample yields with top-shelf, terpene-rich flowers. Make sure to check the soil type and quality parameters to make your purchase confidently.
Go & get growing, folks!
Frequently Asked Questions
Yes, you can grow exotic marijuana using this soil!
When transplanting seeds to moist soil, use tweezers on the seed body or cotyledons. Do not plant the seed in the ground. Instead, dig a hole large enough for the entire root, keep it in place, and gently cover it with the earth. If the seed has genuine leaves, ensure they are visible above the earth. Gently give water.
Straight compost may still be too rich in nutrients, so combine it with some peat moss, perlite, and vermiculite, which will aid aeration and water retention. The compost will include some healthy organic nutrients, but you may still need to add some fertilizer with the water if you notice any shortages or maximum development.
They will develop into individual soil pots that you may use as a growth medium. Plant a seed or two in each container, keeping the pots wet. Once the seedlings have sprouted, move them to a container, raised bed, or garden space in their Jiffy Pot.
If you are growing cannabis, you will almost certainly be providing a nutritional basis of fertilizer to the soil regardless. In terms of nutrients, you just want high-grade, all-purpose soil.
The most delicate soil combination for producing marijuana plants is loam. Loam is a blend of clay, sand, and silt that combines the most remarkable aspects of these distinct soil types while reducing their worst characteristics.
Hemp improves soil health by shading out weeds, lowering the need for synthetic pesticides, and bringing diversity to crop rotations. Hemp is also a marketable product with thousands of seed, oil, and fiber applications. Cannabis, too, has the potential to thrive in nutrient-depleted soils. In addition, the robust root system of industrial hemp may break up compacted soil, giving aeration and porosity while also stabilizing the ground, which aids in erosion management.
Marijuana is a versatile plant that may be grown in various ways. However, all plants require nutrition. Hemp and cannabis are high feeders for a high-quality product. Cannabis, in particular, requires more nutrients and different nutrients during different growth cycles. Not to mention the need for light, evaluating the pH of the water, careful trimming, and so forth. Check out your local indoor horticulture store or a cannabis-growing explosion.
They will develop into individual soil pots that you may use as a growth medium. Plant a seed or two in each container, keeping the pots wet. Once the seedlings have sprouted, move them to a container, raised bed, or garden space in their Jiffy Pot. After being wrapped in a moist towel for a few days, you also plant your seed. As a result, it takes less time to grow.
No, it is not recommended to use topsoil for starting seeds in containers. Seeds need the right amount of oxygen and moisture for the best chance of germination, and topsoil does not provide the best growing medium that suits these needs. In addition, topsoil straight from the ground usually contains organisms that can be harmful to plants and unwanted seeds.
Indoor plants typically require soil replacement every 12 to 18 months. Depending on how quickly they grow. Some sluggish growers can live in the same pot for years, requiring just soil replenishment.
Low humidity, internal water routes, intense sunshine, loose soil, and undesirable fungus can cause plant soil to dry up rapidly. Consequently, water can escape via holes at the bottom of the pot, while air conditions around the plant can accelerate evaporation, causing the soil to dry up quickly.
Mulch, such as wood chips or compost, applied to the soil surface can assist keep moisture in the soil.
Compost and peat moss are crucial for auto-flowering plants, and adding perlite to ensure adequate water retention and drainage can boost yields.